However, the trend seemed to reverse by the late 1980s as more Japanese opted to shift funding from banks to the capital market leaving banks in a tight squeeze as lending costs grew with the shrinking customer base. Over the next few centuries, the inflow of Chinese coins did not meet the demand, so to counter this issue, two privately minted Japanese coins, the Toraisen and Shichusen, entered circulation from the 14th to 16th century. 3, by August 1990, the, nikkei stock index had plummeted to half its peak by the time of the fifth monetary tightening by the Bank of Japan (BOJ).
Indeed, the Nikkei 225 managed to rise past 13,000 by December 2, 1985. Towards the end of the year, most urban land prices fell into negative territory. For definition purposes, Japan Real Estate Institute has classified Tokyo metropolis (including 23 special wards Yokohama ( Kanagawa Nagoya ( Aichi Kyoto ( Kyoto Osaka ( Osaka and Kobe ( Hyogo ) 13 as the six major cities most impacted by the price bubble.